An Open Letter to President Barack Obama, Secretary of Health and Human Services Sylvia Mathews Burwell, Attorney General Eric Holder and Leaders of Congress


The U.S. policy on organ transplants is failing to meet the needs of both patients and donors. Its goal is to save the lives of those with organ failure and to protect the rights and health of those giving organs. But it is not working for those with kidney failure (End-Stage Renal Disease, or ESRD) and they are a significant majority of those waiting for organ transplants.

The government-sponsored waiting list for kidney transplant has grown to more than 100,000 names. Each year, 7,000 people on that list either die or become too ill to receive a transplant. And the problem is only getting worse: while 35,000 patients are added to the waitlist annually, only 17,000 transplants are performed.

We support current efforts to prevent diabetes and hypertension and to make the donation process fairer and more efficient, but they will not resolve the shortage. Additional approaches must be tried. Sadly, transplant policy has been governed by an unsubstantiated assumption: that donors cannot receive benefits for donating without being exploited or coerced. It is critical to examine that assumption. We hereby call for the swift initiation of evidence-based research on ways to offer benefits to organ donors in order to expand the availability of transplants.


Increasing the number of transplants will save lives – our primary goal. This is a rare area of health care where better care will actually help reduce spiraling health care costs. Each transplant saves the health care system more than $100,000 compared to the cost of dialysis. Medicare guarantees dialysis and transplant coverage for all patients with kidney failure regardless of age – fully percent of Medicare’s budget. On average, for each year a patient has a working transplant instead of dialysis, Medicare saves $55,000.

All pilot studies should of course adhere to the high ethical standards currently in place for non-compensated donors. These include guaranteeing informed consent, medical appropriateness of the donation, psychological suitability, and absence of coercion. Pilot programs would include appropriate waiting periods to give potential donors time for reflection.

To ensure equality, private transactions between individuals should remain prohibited. Transplants and benefits should be distributed by a government or government-authorized nonprofit such as the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). While cash incentives are not necessarily unethical, a cautious approach would model benefits on those provided by the GI Bill, such as fully comprehensive life-long health care coverage, disability and life insurance for living donors and funeral benefits for deceased donors. Living donors should be assured priority access to a transplant if needed. Additional benefits such as a pension contribution, tax credit, or charitable contribution in the donors’ names should also be explored, particularly when those benefits will appeal to donors across the financial spectrum. Giving an organ need not fall disproportionately on people with lower incomes.


We write with a sense of urgency as the human cost of kidney failure is so high. More than 600,000 patients suffer from ESRD, a condition that left untreated results quickly in death. Dialysis is the treatment used by more than two-thirds of these patients,7 and while it achieves a modest extension of life (on average eight additional years for patients 45 to 49), it can be debilitating and complications regularly ensue.

Transplantation is medically acknowledged as the preferable treatment.9 Transplants provide a longer life span, lower rates of complication, and better quality of life than dialysis. But not enough organ donors are available. And as is too often the case, indigent and minority patients are more poorly served.

African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are all disproportionately more likely to need a transplant but less likely to be referred to a transplant center. In fact, tens of thousands of patients medically suitable for transplants never make it to the waiting list. The most recent data show that once on the list, African Americans wait 40 percent longer to receive a kidney than whites do, and Hispanic candidates wait 50 percent longer.

The shortage drives organ trafficking, where mostly poor and uninformed people in the global south are recruited to sell their organs, often to patients in the global north. Such transplants are often performed under coercive, exploitative, and unsafe conditions. The World Health Organization has estimated that about 10 percent of all organ transplants worldwide each year are the result of trafficking.


Five years ago, the National Kidney Foundation launched “End the Wait,” a ten-year campaign promising that by 2019, no one with end stage renal disease who was eligible for a transplant would wait more than one year before receiving one.

We are at the halfway mark of this campaign. It was initiated with the best of intentions, but no progress has been made. In 2009, the average wait time for a kidney was 2.8 years; today it’s 4.3. More than 77,000 people were on the waiting list then; today more than 100,000 are. Last year, there were 11,200 transplants from deceased donors; five years before, it was 10,600. Last year, we saw 5,700 transplants from living donors, compared to 6,000 five years previously. More patients are dying, fewer are receiving transplants, and more and more people need kidneys.


We applaud the President’s declaration that 2014 is a “year of action” when he will use executive powers and the regulatory process to ensure the health and well-being of Americans and end unnecessary health expenditures. As part of this process, we call on the President to take executive action on organ transplantation and initiate pilot studies on benefits to donors.

We call on HHS to develop the necessary regulatory process for conducting such studies and to implement them.

We call on the Attorney General to smooth the way for such pilot programs by recognizing that they are consistent with the intent of the National Organ Transplant Act.

Finally, we call on Congress to pass legislation that allocates the necessary funding for these programs and clears the way for their implementation.

Kidney disease has for too long been neglected by all branches of government. It is time to act.

Initiating signers*
Nir Eyal, Associate Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Harvard University
Julio Frenk, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University
Michele B. Goodwin, Chancellor’s Chair in Law, University of California-Irvine Law School
Lori Gruen, Professor of Philosophy, Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, and Environmental Studies at Wesleyan University
The Very Reverend Gary R. Hall, Dean, Washington Cathedral
Douglas W. Hanto, Professor of Surgery and Associate Director Vanderbilt Transplant Center, Vanderbuilt University, Tennessee
Frances Kissling, President, The Center for Health, Ethics and Social Policy
Ruth Macklin, Professor of Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Steven Pinker, Johnstone Family Professor, Department of Psychology, Harvard University
Lloyd E. Ratner, Professor of Surgery, Columbia University
Harold T. Shapiro, President Emeritus, Princeton University
Peter Singer, Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics, Princeton University
Andrew W. Torrance, Professor of Law, University of Kansas and Visiting Scholar MIT Sloan School of Management
Robert D. Truog, Director, Center for Bioethics, Harvard University, Harvard Medical School
Robert M. Veatch, Professor of Medical Ethics at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University



Health Professionals

Dorothy Arthur, Social Worker, Troy, NY
Pamela Barnes, President and CEO, EngenderHealth
Kelly Blanchard, President, Ibis Reproductive Health
Safiye Cagar, Retired UN Official
Virginia Campbell, MD, Fellow in Palliative Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine Paulo Costa, Former President and CEO, Novartis US
Suzanne Davenport, Community Health Worker Advocate, University of Illinois at Chicago
David Davis, Senior Director, Association of American Medical Colleges
Charles H. Debrovner, MD, President, Global Bioethics Initiative
Amanda Dennis, Ibis Reproductive Health
Elizabeth Fleming, Medical Student, Ohio State University
Howard Forman, MD, Professor, Diagnostic Radiology and Public Health, Yale School of Public Health
Joel E. Frader, MD, Division Head, Academic General Pediatrics and Primary Care, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago; Director, Bridges Pediatric Palliative Care Team; Todd Davis Professor of Academic General Pediatrics/Professor of Medical Humanities and Bioethics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Beth Fredrick, Senior Associate at Faculty Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Julio Frenk, MD, PhD, Dean, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University
Deborah Fried, MD, Assistant Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Yale University
Brandon A. Gaudiano, PhD, Assistant Professor (Research) of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Scott Gottlieb, MD, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute; Former FDA Deputy Commissioner
Richard Griffin, PhD, Department of Psychology, Tufts University
Jeet Guram, MD/MBA Student, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Business School
Harville Hendrix, PhD, H&H Ventures, Co-Creator of Imago Relationship Therapy
Karl Hofmann, President and CEO, PSI
Keith Humphreys, PhD, Professor of Psychiatry and the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University
Hortense Hunter Moore, Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE)
Geraldine Jender, Social Worker, Naperville, IL
Joaquín M. Jiménez, Professor, University of Puerto Rico
Kermit Jones, MD, JD, Primary Care Physician, General Internal Medicine Group, Arlington, VA
Frances Kissling, President, Center for Health, Ethics and Social Policy
Monica Knorr, Geriatric Social Worker, Manchester, VT
Keren Ladin, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Occupational Therapy, Tufts University; Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine; Director, Research on Ethics, Aging, and Community Health (REACH)
Ezra Lyon, Medical Student, Ohio State University
Kirk M. Maxey, MD, President & CEO, Cayman Chemical
Barbara Mellers, PhD, George Heyman University Professor, Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
Howard Palefsky, Managing Director, Montreux Equity Partners
Vicki Palefsky, Atlanta, GA
Hal Pashler, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of California, San Diego
Martha Pavlakis, MD, Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital
Barb Peters, BSN, RNC-NIC, Fort Collins, CO
Malcolm Potts, MB, BChir, PhD, Professor of Maternal and Child Health, University of California, Berkeley
Caitlin Quade, PSI, Washington, DC
Kimeera Rao, Clinical Dietitian, Howard University Hospital
Amy Rogers, MD, PhD, ScienceThrillers Media
Mark D. Rego, MD, Yale University Department of Psychiatry
Richard Sackler, MD, Austin, TX
Robert M. Sade, MD, Distinguished University Professor, Professor of Surgery, Director, Institute of Human Values in Health Care, University of South Carolina
Sally Satel, MD, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
June Schwarz, RN, VNA Arlington, MA
Robert Southworth Searle, President, Searle & Co Inc., Greenwich, CT
Sara Seims, Senior Advisor, Population & Reproductive Health, David and Lucile Packard Foundation
Martin Seligman, PhD, Zellerbach Family Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
Bonnie L. Shepard, Program Evaluator, Wellfleet, MA
Steven Sinding, PhD, Former Director General, IPPF, Former Director Global Population, USAID
Serra Sippel, President, Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE)
Thomas Peter Stossel, MD, American Cancer Society Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Charlotte Taft, Imagine
E. Fuller Torrey, MD, Associate Director, Stanley Medical Research Institute
Grace-Marie Turner, Galen Institute, Arlington VA
Peter T. Wilderotter, President and Chief Executive Officer for the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, New Jersey
Beverly Winikoff, MD, President, Gynuity Health Projects 

Transplant Professionals

Michael M. Abecassis, MD, J. Roscoe Miller Distinguished Professor Departments of Surgery and Microbiology-Immunology, Northwestern University Feinberg School, of Medicine
Richard Amerling, MD, Attending Nephrologist, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, and Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Icann Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Prabhakar Baliga, MD, Professor of Surgery, Chief, Division of Transplant, MUSC, Charleston, SC
Roy Bloom, MD, Professor of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Bill Brazell, Partner, WIT Strategy
William Chapman, MD, Professor and Chief, Section of Transplantation, Chief, Division of General Surgery, Washington University, St. Louis
Kenneth D. Chavin, MD, PhD, Professor of Surgery, Microbiology and Immunology, Vice Chairman of Research Department of Surgery, Transplant Surgery, Medical University of South
Jeffrey S. Crippin, MD, Marilyn Bornefeld Chair in Gastrointestinal Research and Treatment; Medical Director, Liver Transplantation; Washington University School of Medicine & Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO
David C. Cronin, MD, PhD, Professor of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, Medical College of Wisconsin
Anthony M. D'Alessandro, MD, Professor of Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Francis DiBona, MD, Retired, CSRA Renal Services, Inc, Aiken, South Carolina
Devin Eckhoff, MD, Professor of Surgery, Director, Division of Transplantation, Director, Liver Transplant Program, Medical Director, Alabama Organ Center, The University of Alabama at Birmingham
Jonathan Fisher, MD, Surgeon, Scripps Clinic Medical Group
Robert A. Fisher, MD, Professor and Chief Transplant Surgery Division, Harvard Medical School, Director Transplant Institute, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Ctr
Sander S. Florman, MD, The Charles Miller, MD Professor of Surgery, Director, Recanati/Miller Transplantation Institute, Mount Sinai Medical Center
Chris E. Freise, MD, Professor of Surgery, Transplant Division, University of California, San Francisco
Amy L. Friedman, MD, New York
Eli A. Friedman, MD, Distinguished Teaching Professor of Medicine, SUNY, Downstate Medical Center
Robert Gaston, MD, Robert G. Luke Endowed Chair in Transplant Nephrology, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Bruce Gelb, Director of Renal Transplantation, New York University
Michael Goldstein, MD, Executive Director, Life Alliance Organ Recovery Agency; Director of Kidney Transplantation at Miami Transplant Institute
Robert A. Gutman, MD, Retired Professor of Medicine (Nephrology), Duke University
Douglas W. Hanto, MD, PhD, Professor of Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Mitchell L. Henry, MD, Professor of Surgery, Chief, Division of Transplantation, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
Benjamin Hippen, MD, Transplant Nephrologist, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC; Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill
Michael Brian Ishitani, MD, Professor of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
Devon John, MD, Chief of Transplantation Surgery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Sandip Kapur, MD, Professor of Surgery, Chief, Division of Transplant Surgery, NY Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Transplant Center
Seth J. Karp, MD, Professor of Surgery, Ingram Chair in Surgical Sciences, and Director, Vanderbilt Transplant Center
Harold Kyriazi, PhD, Department of Neurobiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Ted Lawson, Co-Chair, Public Policy Committee - TRIO, Inc
Peter N. Madras, MD, Senior Staff, Institute of Urology, Lahey Health
Joren C. Madsen, MD, DPhil, Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Director, MGH Transplant Center, W. Gerald and Patricia R. Austen Distinguished Scholar in Cardiac Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital
John C. Magee, MD, Professor of Surgery, University of Michigan
Arthur Matas, MD, Professor of Surgery and Director of Kidney Transplantation, University of Minnesota
Lisa Tabor McCrea, Patient Advocate, Matching Donors, Pollock, LA
J. Michael Millis, MD, Professor of Surgery, Director, University of Chicago Transplant Center; Chief, Section of Transplantation, Liver Transplantation and Hepatobiliary Surgery, University of Chicago
Ernesto Molmenti, MD, Vice Chairman, Department of Surgery; Director, Transplant Program; Professor, Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine
Anthony P. Monaco, MD, Peter Medawar Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Paul Morrissey, MD, Associate Professor of Surgery, Brown Medical School
James Myers, National Kidney Foundation
Harvey Mysel, Founder, Living Kidney Donors Network, IL
Douglas Penrod, RN, Transplant Nurse Coordinator, Non-Directed Living Kidney Donor, Chicago, IL
Thomas G. Peters, MD, Professor of Surgery Emeritus, University of Florida
Jim Plante, President and CEO, Pathway Genomics Corporation
Lloyd E. Ratner, MD, MPH, Professor of Surgery, Columbia University
Peter Reese, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Jorge Reyes, MD, Chief of Transplant Surgery, University of Washington
Reza Saidi, MD, Alpert Medical School, Brown University
David Shaffer, MD, Professor of Surgery, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
Sudhir V. Shah, MD, Professor of Medicine and Director, Division of Nephrology, UAMS College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR
Michael E. Shapiro, MD, Associate Professor of Surgery, Rutgers - New Jersey Medical School
Risa Simon, Founder and Executive Director, and Patient Educator, The Proactive Path & TransplantFirst Academy
Barry H. Smith, MD, PhD, President/CEO, The Rogosin Institute; Professor of Clinical Surgery, Attending Physician, NewYork Presbyterian-Weill Cornell Medical Center
Hans W. Sollinger, MD, PhD, Folkert O. Belzer Professor, Departments of Surgery and Pathology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Founder Insulete
Lew Teperman, MD, Associate Professor; Service Chief at NYUHC; Div Chief Transplant Surgery; Vice Chair Department of Surgery
JE Tuttle Newhall, MD, Professor of Surgery Anesthesia and Critical Care; Division Chief Transplant Surgery at St. Louis University Hospital/Cardinal Glennon Medical Center
David J. Undis, Executive Director, LifeSharers
James F. Whiting, MD, Surgical Director, Maine Transplant Program, Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME
Joel M. Zinberg, MD, JD, Associate Clinical Professor of Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital 


Jacob M. Appel, MD, JD, Department of Psychiatry, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Neera Badhwar, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, George Mason University
Dan W. Brock, PhD, Frances Glessner Lee Professor of Medical Ethics, Emeritus, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Inmaculada de Melo-Martin, PhD, Professor of Medical Ethics, Weill Cornell Medical College
Adam Elga, PhD, Professor, Princeton University
Nir Eyal, DPhil, Associate Professor of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University
Johann Frick, Instructor, Department of Philosophy and Center for Human Values, Princeton University
Sigrid Fry-Revere, JD, Founder and CEO, Stop Organ Trafficking Now!
Lori Gruen, PhD, Professor of Philosophy, Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies, and Environmental Studies, Wesleyan University
Alexander Guerrero, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania
Kimberly Hendrickson, PhD Candidate, Boston College
Kathryn Hinsch, Women’s Bioethics Project, Albany Medical College
Dale Jamieson, PhD, Professor of Environmental Studies and Philosophy, Affiliated Professor of Law, Director of Animal Studies Initiative, New York University
Peter Jaworski, PhD, Visiting Assistant Professor, Georgetown University
Ricki Lewis, Author and Geneticist, Alden March Bioethics Institute
Ana Lita, PhD, Executive Director, Global Bioethics Initiative
Ruth Macklin, PhD, Professor of Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Susan M. Mathews, PhD, Ethicist, North Hutchinson Island, FL
Victoria McGeer, PhD, Research Scholar, Princeton University
Michelle N. Meyer, JD, PhD, Assistant Professor and Director of Bioethics Policy, Union Graduate College-Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Bioethics Program
Jonathan D. Moreno, PhD, David and Lyn Silfen University Professor of Medical Ethics, History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania
Philip Pettit, PhD, Professor, Princeton University
Laura Purdy, PhD, Professor Emerita of Philosophy, Wells College
Peter Singer, Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics, Princeton University
Adam Shriver, Postdoctoral Fellow, The University of Pennsylvania
Michael Smith, DPhil, McCosh Professor of Philosophy, Princeton University
Lance K. Stell, PhD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, UNC Chapel Hill School of Medicine; Medical Ethicist, Director, Ethics Consultation Service, Carolinas Medical Center
James S. Taylor, PhD, Associate Professor of Philosophy, the College of New Jersey
Larry S. Tempkin, PhD, Distinguished Professor and Chair, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey
Robert D. Truog, MD, Director, Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University
Robert M. Veatch, PhD, The Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University 


Rocco F. Andriola, JD, Chairman of Save Lives Now New York Foundation
Jon Bouker, Partner and Government Relations Co-Practice Group Leader, Arent Fox
Olevia Boykin, Student, Yale Law School
Paul Brest, JD, Former Dean and Professor Emeritus (Active), Stanford Law School
Erwin Chemerinsky, JD, Dean of the School of Law, University of California Irvine
I. Glenn Cohen, JD, Assistant Professor of Law at Harvard Law School; Co-director of Harvard Law School’s Petrie-Flom Center for Health Law Policy, Biotechnology, and Bioethics
Lloyd Cohen, JD, Professor of Law, George Mason University School of Law
Vanessa Dube, Law Student, Washington, DC
Bruce Ellis Fein, JD, Lawyer
Martin Fleisher, JD, Managing Director, Dearborn Capital Partners, LLC
Lynsey Gaudioso, Yale Law School
Rosanna Gonsiewski, Senior Administrative Assistant, Yale Law School
Michele B. Goodwin, JD, LLM, Chancellor’s Chair in Law, University of California-Irvine Law School
Melissa Henzel, Yale Law School
Stephen Isaacs, Lawyer, San Francisco
Rick K. Jones, Counsel, Pennsylvania Legislative Budget & Finance Committee
Jonathan Kaufelt, Attorney and Activist, Santa Monica, CA
Beezly Kiernan, Student, Yale Law School
Adam Kolber, JD, Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School
Kimberly D. Krawiec, JD, Kathrine Robinson Everett Professor of Law, Duke University
Howard Lempel, Law Student, Yale University
Heather Mac Donald, JD, Thomas Smith Fellow, Manhattan Institute
Stephen J. Morse, JD, PhD, Ferdinand Wakeman Hubbell Professor of Law & Professor of Psychology and Law in Psychiatry, Associate Director, Center for Neuroscience & Society, Diplomate, American Board of Professional Psychology (Forensic), University of Pennsylvania Law School
Katherine Munyan, Student, Yale Law School
Eric Posner, JD, Kirkland and Ellis Distinguished Service Professor of Law, The University of Chicago Law School
J.L. Pottenger, Jr., JD, Nathan Baker Clinical Professor of Law, Yale Law School
Marina Romani, Student, Yale Law School
Gregory Shaffer, JD, Vice President of the American Society of International Law; Director, Center on International, Transnational, and Comparative Law, University of California Irvine School of Law
Alexios Shaw, Student, Yale Law School
Scott Slawson, JD, Attorney, Timnath, CO
Alexander Taubes, Yale Law Student
Terry Tomsick, JD, Attorney, Denver Colorado
Andrew W. Torrance, PhD, JD, Professor of Law, University of Kansas and Visiting Scholar, MIT Sloan School of Management
Julie Veroff, Student, Yale Law School
Eugene Volokh, JD, Gary T. Schwartz Professor of Law, UCLA School of Law 

Religious Leaders

Rev. Dr. Douglass Bailey, President and Founder, Center for Urban Ministry, Inc., Winston-Salem, NC
Edie Beaujon
Rev. Dr. Rita Nakashima Brock, PhD
, Professor of Theology and Culture, Director, The Soul Repair Center, Brite Divinity School, Ft. Worth, TX
The Rev. Dr. John Buehrens, Senior Minister, First Unitarian Universalist Church of San Francisco; Past President, Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations
Pat Clark, Former Executive Director, Fellowship of Reconciliation
The Very Reverend Gary R. Hall, PhD, Dean, Washington Cathedral
Rev. Robert Lee Hill, Community Christian Church, Kansas City, MO
Kokyo Henkel, Head Teacher, Zen Center of Santa Cruz, CA
Mary E. Hunt, PhD, Co-Director, Women's Alliance for Theology, Ethics and Ritual (WATER)
Rabbi Steven Jacobs, Rabbi, Central Conference of American Rabbis
Rabbi Peter S. Knobel, Rabbi Emeritus, Beth Emet the Free Synagogue
Rev. Harry Knox, President, Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice
Rabbi Douglas E. Krantz, Rabbi, Congregation B'nai Yisrael, Townsend, DE
Rev. Dr. Kah-Jin Jeffrey Kuan, PhD, President, Claremont School of Theology
Rabbi Howard Mandell, Congregation Beth Israel of the Merrimack Valley, New Haven, CT
Pat Mathis, Member, Board of Trustees, Episcopal Divinity Schoo
Ann Neumann, Visiting Scholar, Center for the Study of Religion and Media, New York University
Michael Novak, Trustee and Visiting Professor at Ave Maria University, Ave Maria, FL
Rev. Peter Panagore, Reverend, First Radio Parish Church of America
Moses Peterson, Pastor, the Apostolic Church, Houston, TX
The Very Reverend Katherine Hancock Ragsdale, President and Dean, Episcopal Divinity School, Cambridge, MA
Rev. Osagyefo Sekou, Pastor for Formation and Justice, the First Baptist Church in Jamaica Plain, MA
Rev. Paul H. Sherry, Former President, United Church of Christ
Rev. Lloyd Steffen, PhD, Professor, Religion Studies, University Chaplain, Lehigh University
Rev. Carlton Veazey, Former President, Religious Coalition for Reproductive Choice
June Wink, Potter, Quaker, Sandsfield, MA
Seung Ai Yang, PhD, Associate Professor of New Testament, Chicago Theological Seminary
Barbara Brown Zikmund, PhD, Former President of Hartford Seminary, Hartford, CT


Jonathan Baron, PhD, Professor of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania
Paul Bloom, PhD, Brooks and Suzanne Ragen Professor of Psychology, Yale University
Jeffrey Borenstein, PhD, Lecturer in Physics, Harvard Extension School
Leanne Boucher, Associate Professor, Nova Southeastern University
Carol Cohn, PhD, Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Michael Crescimanno, PhD, Professor of Physics, Youngstown State University
Martha J. Farah, PhD, Walter H. Annenberg Professor in the Natural Sciences, University of Pennsylvania
Andew Gordon, PhD, Professor of History, Harvard University
Charles Grair, PhD, Texas Tech University
Catherine Lutz, PhD, Thomas J. Watson, Jr. Family Professor of Anthropology and International Studies, Brown University
Rachel M. McCleary, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, Harvard Kennedy School
Steven Pinker, PhD, Johnstone Family Professor, Department of Psychology, Harvard University
Paul Roossin, Science Director, Nanotronics Imaging
Harold T. Shapiro, PhD, President Emeritus, Princeton University
Azim Shariff, PhD, Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon
Alex Shaw, PhD, Professor, University of Chicago
David Tannenbaum, PhD, University of Chicago
Magda Teter, PhD, Chair, Department of History, Wesleyan University
Philip E. Tetlock, PhD, Annenberg University Professor, Psychology Department and Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania ◊ Travis M. Timmerman, Syracuse University
David L. Weimer, PhD, Professor of Political Science and Public Affairs, Robert M. La Follette School of Public Affairs, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Peter D. Zimmerman, PhD, Emeritus Professor of Science and Security, King's College London, Great Falls, VA 


Joe Antos, Wilson H. Taylor Scholar in Health Care and Retirement Policy, American Enterprise Institute
T. Randolph Beard, PhD, Professor of Economics, Auburn University
Kevin Corinth, PhD, Research Fellow in Economic Policy Studies, American Enterprise Institute
Tyler Cowen, PhD, Professor of Economics, George Mason University
Judd Kessler, PhD, Assistant Professor of Business Economics and Public Policy, the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
Mario Macis, PhD, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University
Eric Maskin, PhD, Adams University Professor, Harvard University, Nobel Laureate 2007
Mark J. Perry, PhD, Professor of
Economics, University of Michigan-Flint
Alex Tabarrok, PhD, Bartley J. Madden Chair in Economics, George Mason University
James Trussell, PhD, Professor of Economics and Public Affairs, Princeton University
Alan D. Viard, PhD, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute 

Public Policy

Heather Booth, Washington, DC
Philip J. Cook, PhD, ITT/Sanford Professor of Public Policy, Duke University
James K Glassman, Founding Executive Director, Bush Library and Institute
David Grosso, Councilman at Large, DC City Council
Mark A. R. Kleiman, PhD, Professor of Public Policy, UCLA School of Public Affairs
Barbara Ledeen, Chevy Chase, MD
Jim Leitzel, PhD, Director, Public Policy in the College, University of Chicago
Norman Ornstein, PhD, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
Glenn W. Smith, Director, Progress Texas PAC 


Angela Bonavoglia, Freelance Journalist and Author
Larissa MacFarquhar, Staff Writer, The New Yorker
Laura Newman, Writer, New York, NY
Christine S. Rosen, PhD, Senior Editor, The New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology & Society
Jordan Stolper, CEO, StoryDesk
Meredith Tax, Writer, New York, NY 

Kidney Donors

Kurt Anderson, Providence, RI
Michele Austin, Sparks, NV
Alexander Berger, Senior Research Analyst, GiveWell
Lindsey Beyerstein, Investigative Journalist
Michelle J. Bourassa, Keene, NH
Ira Brody, Alliance for Paired Donation
Mary Clynes, Florissant, MO
Morgan Falke, Austin, TX
Alex Holloway, Fort Worth, TX
Tammy Johnson, St. Paul, MN
Peter Keating
Zell Kravinsky

Beth Cone Kramer, Calabasas, CA
Kathy Madison, Elk Grove, CA
Josh Morrison, JD, and Thomas Kelly, PhD Candidate, Co-Executive Directors, WaitList Zero
Eric Parrie
Representative Linda Tyler
, President, Tyler2, Inc., Board Member of the American Association of Kidney Patient
Tamara Villaverde, Rockledge, FL
Leslie Wolfe, PhD, President, Center for Women's Policy Studies, DC


Emlyn Addison, Providence, RI
Donna Adelsberg, Norwalk, OH
Rio Alvarado, Asheville, NC
Clara Atchley, Calabash, NC
Claudette Bailey, In need of a kidney, Pembroke Pines, FL
Barbara Baker, Los Altos, CA
Destiny Baker, Big Stone Gap, VA
Paul Basken, Washington, DC
Kenneth R. Bazinet, Takoma Park, MD
Katie Beckheyer, San Francisco, CA
Steve Beinstein, Owings Mills, MD
Arleen Best, Ardsley, NY
Richard Blaine, Las Vegas, NV
Blair Bolles, New York, NY
Anne Brown, Phoenix, AZ
Paul Brown, Brooklyn, NY
Kim Bryant, Hamilton, OH
Robert Buchanan, La Mesa, CA
Ann Bush, DVM, Saco, ME
Kathryn Caffery, Orlando, FL
Gerald G. Crowther, Trabuco Canyon, CA
Brian Curran, Transplant Candidate, Longmont, CO
Christine Dakin, Independent Artist, Radcliffe Institute of Advanced Study, Fellow, Faculty Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre, Alvin Ailey School
Ted Dahmus, Father is living on 1/2 of a kidney, Cincinnatti, OH
Eric Dezenhall, Washington, DC
Helen Diagama                                 
Robert J. Doyle, Wilmington, DE
Julie Esris, Boston, MA
Lola Feathers, Personal Care Worker, Friendship, WI
Elaine Flanagan, Carencro, LA
Kathleen Flannery, Long Beach, CA
Nikki Fleser, On transplant list, Rolla, MO
Agnes Franzen, Goodyear, AZ
Heather Fries, Shamokin Dam, PA
Brian Gabay, New York, NY
Kathy Geisler, Port Charlotte, FL
Angela Giral, Retired Librarian, Columbia
Janet Gitterman, Montville, New Jersey
Jenifer Groves, Somerdale, NJ
Mark Hanis, Washington, DC
Marianne Harding, Washington, DC
Jennifer Harrison, Illinois
Bonnie J. Harvey, Ocean View, DE
Thomas S. Harvey, Ocean View, DE
Pamela Heaberlin, Fort Collins, CO
John Heaney, Principal, Organomics, Bethesda, MD
Charlene Hinojosa, Walla Walla, WA
Elizabeth Hourigan, Social Needs Teacher, Wilmington, NC
Jeff Howard, Levittown, NY
Jessica Hunter, New Haven, CT
Cathy Jaskey, Addison, IL
Dustin Jordan, Vilonia, AR
Jamie Jordan, Vilonia, AR
Brian Kelly, University of Central Florida
Alison Kennedy, Brooklyn, NY
William Kennedy, Bowling Green, OH
Gregory Kimble, Daughter needs a kidney transplant
Sharon Kissling, Treasurer, WAWA, Wilmington, NC
Bobbie Kithcart, Glendale, NY
William Kramer, Port Washington, NY
Josh Kraut, Renal Failure Patient, Walla Walla, WA
Robert Kust, RNK Sales, Cincinnati, OH
Sue Kust, Cincinnati, OH
Christine La Grace, Houston, TX
Marcia Lacy, Conway, AR
Lily Lamboy
Patil Lavaggi, Sherrman Oaks, CA
Trina Layne, Currently on transplant list, Forest, VA
Larry Lewis, PhD, Scotia, NY
Mike Lietz, Naperville, IL
Lily Leung, Library Technician II, SEIU Local 1021, Alameda, CA
Dimitri Linde, Cambridge, MA
Cheryl Link, Denver, CO
Janice Lock, Homemaker, Carencro, LA
Joseph Lock, Human Resource Consultant and Owner, Human Resource Consultants of Lafayette, LLC, Carencro, LA
Taurus Londono, Lenox, MA
Rocky Lotito, New York, NY
Monica C. Magoon, Board Member, Phoenix Chapter PKD
Brett Maiden, PhD Student, Emory University
Pam Markham, Retired teacher, Conway, AR
Stephanie Martinez, Transplant Recipient, Janesville, IA
Jeffrey McCall, Albuquerque, NM
Frankie McDowell, Brookings, SD
Andrew Thomas McKenzie, New York, NY
Wandah McKinney, Chula Vista, CA
Robin Messing, Watertown, MA
Polly Miller, Transplant Recipient, Fort Wayne, IN
Goodwin Morrison, Boynton Beach, FL
Robin Morrison, Boynton Beach, FL
Daniel Mysel, Highland Park, IL
Karen Natoli, Madison, WI
Jeff Nelson, Sussex, WI
Patti Norton, Fort Wayne, IN
Paul Novell
Van Nguyen, Milpitas, CA
Thomas D. Owens, Stage 4 CKD, Wyoming, MI
Virginia Padilla, Sylvan Lake, MI
Katiela Palma, Bloomington, IN
Henry Palmer, Gainesville, FL
Sandra Peters, Rustburg, VA
Meredith Phillips, Brooklyn, NY
Benjamin Pollins, McLean, VA
Victor Porter, Paleontologist, the Childrens Museum of Indianapolis
Heather Pratt, Missouri City, TX
Shannon Pritchett, Pooler, GA
Ron Ramanujam, New York, NY
Matthew Reardon, Volunteer, Life-Vietnam
Kristina Richardson, Henderson, NV
Kathy Robinson, Kidney Transplant Patient, Bedford, TX
Andrew Rock, Graduate Student, Columbia University
Dolores Rogers, New York, NY
Alan Rosenblatt, Sr. VP for Digital Strategy, turner4D
Beverly Rosson, Austin, TX
Zemuly Sanders, La Grange, TN
Woodson J. Savage, Cordova, TN
Kaitlyn Schaeffer, New York
Rob Schebel, West Des Moines Public Schools, IA
Gary J. Schmitt, Resident Scholar, American Enterprise Institute
Klaus Schober, Boulder, CO
Joyce Schorr, Sherman Oaks, CA
Rachel Clare Schreibmaan, Washington, DC
David Simmons, Transplant Recipient, Evanston, IL
Linda Simon, Flossmoor, IL
Argy Skaleri, Great Expectations
Sara Sobkowiak, Uxbridge, MA
Judith Soukup, PhD, Senior Scientist, Retired from SAIC, San Diego, CA
Steve Spencer, New Haven, IN
Bita Taubes, Madison, CT
Jacqueline Thomas-Rodrigues, Kidney Transplant Recipient, Louisville, KY
Lisa Thonas, Elizabethtown, KY
Pam Tigani, Port Chester, NY
Erica Tusa, ESRD Stage 5, Oakland Park, FL
Molly Valdini, Coconut Creek, FL
Susan Waddington, Dallas, TX
Kim Wagner, Transplant recipient, Albuquerque, NM
Jamison Wagner, Albuquerque, NM
Karyn Waxman, PKD Foundation Memphis Chapter Coordinator
Scott Weinstein, Brooklyn, NY
John Welsh, Lavergne, TN
Teresa Wilkins, Port Washington, NY
Scott Witcher, Mishawaka, IN
Boris Yakubchik, Rutgers University
George Zaloom, Pacific Palisades, CA
Valerie Zamberletti, President, Zamberletti & Associates, Minneapolis, MN 

International Supporters

Riley Burke, Berlin, Germany
Jacqui Clarke, Peregian Beach, Australia
Sam Dumitriu, University Of Manchester
Dom Emery, Melbourne, Australia
Daniel Frank, Law Student, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario
Brian Hedden, Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Sydney
Hilde Heynen, PhD, Professor, University of Leuven
J. Menzies, Melbourne, Australia
Nils Murken, Bremen, Germany
Dorian Peters, University of Sydney
Theron Pummer, Oxford University
Janet Radcliffe-Richards, Professor of Practical Philosophy and Fellow, Distinguished Research Fellow and Consultant at the Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics, University of Oxford
Steve Stewart-Williams, PhD, Swansea University
Ben Stoller, Toronto, Canada
Irene Tognetti, Activist, Wollongong, Australia 


©Copyright 2014 W. Kramer